Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO)

The Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO) was established in 1932 based on a special law on applied scientific research in the Netherlands. TNO is an independent research organisation whose expertise and research make an important contribution to the competitiveness of companies and organisations, to the economy and to the quality of society as a whole. TNO has clustered a variety of disciplines into seven themes: Healthy Living, Industrial Innovation, Defense, Safety and Security, Energy,  Mobility, Built Environment  and Information Society.
TNO has a strong expertise in a wide range of assessments of chemical workplace exposures including exposure to gases, vapours and aerosols, as well as dermal exposures. In addition, risk management strategies are developed and applied including systematic approaches to select control measures, e.g. substitution, technical measures and personal protection. TNO has been involved in the FP6&7 Nano EHS projects NANOSH and NANEX, and is currently involved in FP7 projects NANODEVICE and MARINA.
TNO cooperates with RIVM (NL) and University Utrecht (NL) in the area of worker exposure modelling, consumer exposure modelling, epidemiology and health impact assessment and with many international scientific groups in a broad range of topics, e.g. HSL (UK), IOM (UK), IFA, IUTA  (D), NRCWE (DK), institutions and industrial organizations.